Racing Career

GREYHOUND ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

(A)   The Major Muscles

1) Triceps (Monkey Muscles)

2) Brachiocephalicus

3) Deltoid

4) Brachialis

5) Trachial

6) Pectoral

7) Trapezius

8) Supraspinatus

9) Clavicle

10) Obliquous Abdominus Externus

11) Lumbo Dorsal Fascia

12) Gluteus Medius

13) Gluteus Maximus

14) Dorsal Sacroccygens

15) Semitendinosus

16) Biceps Femoris

17) Gracilus

18) Gastrocnemius

19) Long Digital Extensor

20) Obturator Internus

21) Flexor Hallicus Longus

22) Anterior Tibial

23) Medial and Lateral Gastrocnemius  &  superficial digital Flexor

24) Sartorius (Whips)

25) Tensor Fascia (Triangles)

GALLERY

 

 

(B)   The Major Bone Structure

1) Skull

2) Vertebrae (Cervical "7")

3) Scapula

4) Thorax (Ribcage)

5) Sternum (Breast Bone)

6) Humerous

7) Radius

8) Ulna

9) Carpus

10) Matacarpus

11) Phalanges

12) Thoracic Vertebrae (13)

13) Lumbar Vertebrae (7)

14) Femur (Thigh Bone)

15) Patella ('knee cap', 'stifle')

16) Fibula

17) Tibia

18) Tarsus

19) Metatarsus

20) Spinal Column and Tail

21) Pelvis

22) Acetabulum (Socket)

23) Hock

Clinical Aspects of the Greyhound

Robert L. Gillette, DVM, MSE--

The veterinary profession is currently witnessing an increased demand from our clientele for information concerning performance of the canine athlete. The expectations come as a result of the scientific advancements in human sports medicine. If a pet owner is only interested in companionship, minimal stress will be placed upon the pet's body. As the athletic demands of the owner increase there is a proportional increas-e in the physical demands placed upon the animal's body. A certain level of energy is needed to maintain homeostasis, and additional energy is utilized during physical activity. Designing the proper nutritional program begins by defining the type of activity and then the level of activity the dog will be asked to perform. Once the activity requirements are determined, the components of the daily feeding regimen can be formulated. In addition, supplementation can be utilized to address additional energy requirement needed by the different activities. A professional and informed approach to feeding can enhance performance and minimize problems that can result in poor performance.

-Activity Type and Level

The body needs energy to maintain homeostasis, and additional energy during physical activity. The maintenance energy requirement (MER) is defined as the energy used by a moderately active adult dog in a thermoneutral environment (MER=30 kcal/# for a 50+ pound dog). When the body performs at a level greater than its normal daily routine there is a greater for energy. Physical activities can be divided into two categories: strength/power activities and endurance activities. Strength/power events are of short duration (< 2 minutes) and are performed at intensities that are maximal or supramaximal. Some events are intermediate, they are performed at varying intensities for a duration of 2-4 minutes. Endurance events usually last longer than four minutes and are performed at intensities < 90% of maximal aerobic power (VO2 max). It is estimated that a dog hunting for one hour utilizes 1.1 x MER, a full day of hunting utilizes 1.4-1.5 x MER, and a sled dog pulling for one day uses 2-4 x MER. -

The body utilizes three systems to provide energy for the body. The type of activity defines which of the systems will be used. The immediate energy source is from the one enzyme system. It provides energy for the first five to twenty seconds. This system uses intracellular ATP, Creatine Phosphate (CP), and the ADP/myokinase reaction to provide energy for increased body activity. The glycolytic energy pathway provides energy from five to twenty seconds up to two minutes. Energy comes from the anaerobic breakdown of glucose. This is a more complicated form of energy production involving multiple steps and enzymes. The third energy source is from oxidative metabolism. It starts approximately two minutes after the start of the physical exercise. It is the most complicated energy system. It can use various substrates and is the most efficient energy system. Strength/power activities rely heavily upon the one enzyme and the glycolytic energy systems, and endurance activities rely upon the oxidative energy systems.

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